Take a virtual visit to one of the most popular sites of Open House New York Weekend, the Brooklyn Army Terminal, and join us for a live exploration of the site’s architecture, history, and industry. Designed by architect Cass Gilbert and built in 1918–1919, the Terminal is an architectural and engineering marvel that served as a major military installation for nearly 50 years. Today it is a city-owned industrial park that is home to over 100 tenants, including manufacturers, technology companies, nonprofits, artists, and more. On this virtual tour, we will explore the history and architecture of the stunning atrium, and visit with Adapt Ability Bikes, a nonprofit that builds adaptive bicycles for people with disabilities, and stop into BioBAT Art Space to see the work of artist Tatiana Arocha.>> Continue reading
Celebrate Navy Day with a discussion of one of the least-known units of World War II, the Navy Armed Guard. Serving in the U-boat-infested waters of the Atlantic, these sailors served in small detachments aboard merchant ships manning the deck guns. This virtual program will be hosted from the Sunset Park waterfront, where many sailors departed from the docks of the Brooklyn Army Terminal and Bush Terminal, and where the largest Armed Guard Center in the country was located, the Second Battalion Naval Militia Armory that once stood on 1st Avenue and 52nd Street. We will discuss the creation and evolution of the service during World War II, listen to oral histories of Armed Guard sailors, and visit one of the few memorials to the sacrifices of these brave men.
Photo Credit: Official US Navy photograph, taken by Clarence F. Korker
- The Pointer archive
- American Merchant Marine at War
- Clarence “Korky” Korker interview (USA Warrior Stories)
- Justin F. Gleichauf (1990) Unsung Sailors: The Naval Armed Guard in World War II
- “Historical Narrative of U.S. Naval Armed Guard Center Third Naval District” (Hyperwar)
- “Armed Guard Service in World War II” (NHHC)
Concrete may seem like an odd material for shipbuilding, but during World War I, severe shortages of steel led to this innovation. Devised by Norwegian immigrants the Fougner brothers, they built one of the first such ships in the US at their shipyard in Flushing, Queens. The technology reached its apex during World War II, when the US built over 100 ships and barges, and they were used as freighters, tankers, and even floating ice cream factories. Large-scale concrete shipbuilding is a thing of the past, but we will examine the fates of these wartime ships, and discuss many examples of concrete boatbuilding today.
- Concrete Ships
- Nicolay Fougner (1922) Seagoing and Other Concrete Ships
- John Vasta (1952) The Concrete Ship Program of World War II
- “How Poured Ships are Built” (Popular Science)
- “How the Navy’s ban on booze birthed a million-dollar floating ice cream parlor” (Task & Purpose)
Completed in 1919, the Brooklyn Army Terminal is a marvel of architecture and engineering. On this virtual tour, we will examine its design and construction during World War I, its 47-year service as a military supply base, and its reinvention as a hub for industry, manufacturing, and technology today. We will spend time in the breathtaking atrium, step into the skybridges that connect the buildings, and look at how the site has been renovated.
- Brooklyn Army Terminal virtual programs
- Adapt Ability Bikes
- BioBAT Art Space • Common Frequencies
- New York New Jersey Rail (car float)
On National Submarine Day, dive into the undersea history of the Brooklyn Navy Yard! Although no submarines were ever built at the Yard, from the Civil War to the Cold War, it was a critical facility for the development, testing, and outfitting of the US Navy’s submarine fleet, from primitive hand-cranked submersibles to nuclear-powered ballistic missile subs. This program will explore the evolution of submarine technology and critical breakthroughs that were made at the Yard, including the development of diesel engines from captured German U-boats, experimental torpedoes and underwater munitions, and the world’s first satellite-based navigation system.
- National Guard Militia Museum of New Jersey – Intelligent Whale
- Dubbs, Chris, America’s U-boats: Terror Trophies of World War I
- Submarine E-2 explosion, 1916
- Update on the status of USS Ling
April 6 marks the 104th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I, but the impacts of this global conflict were already being felt in New York City. Starting in 1914, panicked markets, inefficient infrastructure, and marauding U-boats caused price shocks and shortages, and the war led directly to the creation of new modes of food distribution, leading to the creation of New York City’s wholesale and retail public market system that still exists today. In this program, we will examine reports from the time period by the city and state Departments and Markets about how new open-air markets were stood up, pushcart peddlers were mobilized to bring food to neighborhoods, and the public was educated to conserve scarce or strategically valuable ingredients.
- The Great War and NYC: Street Vendors and Public Markets
- Dillon, John J., Seven Decades of Milk: A History of New York’s Dairy Industry (1941)
- “The High Cost of Eating: Three Answers to the Problem of Food Shortage” (Independent, Mar 12, 1917)
- Westerville Public Library: Anti-Saloon League Collection
- “Food Will Win the War” (The Library Company of Philadelphia)
- “American School Lunch Is Becoming More Diverse” (Atlas Obscura)
- Unofficial Collection of World War I Photographs (National Archives)
Food manufacturing has been a cornerstone of Brooklyn’s manufacturing economy for 150 years. Not only was the borough was home to some of the largest chocolate and confectionary makers in the country, but its port brought the tropical ingredients from around the globe. We will discuss some of the large and small chocolate makers that dotted Brooklyn’s landscape, the men and women who worked in them, and the transformations brought to the industry by mechanization, unionization, and war. We will also look at some of the artisanal chocolate makers that are keeping the confectionary traditions alive today.
- The Easter Bunny Goes to War
- The 1919 Brooklyn Chocolate Flood
- Jacques Torres Chocolate
- “Brooklyn’s JoMart Chocolates” (New York Times)
- “Mexican Family Gives Brooklyn Mole Poblano Flavor” (Brooklyn Daily Eagle)
- History of the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco, and Grain Millers International Union
- Chocolate Manufacturing in World War I (National Archives)
- “Origin of a Dish: Brooklyn Blackout Cake” (Sarah Lohman)
- “City OK with Loss of Cocoa Port” (Brooklyn Paper)
- MRE & Ration Reviews (YouTube)
The celebrate Black History Month and the 220th birthday at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, we are looking at the obstacles and opportunities that Black people encountered at the Brooklyn Navy Yard from the end of the Civil War through the Yard’s closure a century later. The program will examine the long history of African-Americans in the maritime trades, their systematic exclusion from the uniformed ranks of the US Navy in the Jim Crow era, and the new opportunities that emerged during World War II. We will look at profiles of trailblazers, innovators, and activists who worked and served there, and how the Yard became an important to Black economic and cultural life in Brooklyn. This virtual program follows up where we left off with last year’s “An Unfree Fleet,” which looked at the Yard’s connections to the institution of slavery.
- WATCH An Unfree Fleet: Slavery and the Brooklyn Navy Yard
- African-American Maritime Heritage – PortSide NewYork
- The Monitor’s Crew – Monitor Center
- Brooklyn Navy Yard – John Sharp, Genealogy Trails
- The Brooklyn Navy Yard: Civil Servants Building Warships – John Stobo, Columbia University
- Phyllis Mae Dailey, the Navy’s first African-American nurse
- Robert Hammond oral history (Center for Brooklyn History)
- Clark J. Simmons oral history (National Park Service)
- Bolster, Jeffrey W., Black Jacks (Archive.org)
- Harrod, Frederick S., Manning the New Navy (Archive.org)
- Hodges, Graham Russell, Root and Branch (Archive.org)
- Peterson, Carla L., Black Gotham
- Stillwell, Paul, The Golden Thirteen (Archive.org)
December 7, 1941 is a date that is indelible in American history, but 24 years earlier, that date also marked an important moment: the arrival of Battle Division 9 to Scapa Flow, the first American battleships to join the British Grand Fleet, which included the Brooklyn Navy Yard-built USS New York and USS Florida. We will discuss the special role of the US Navy in the naval war, in which battleships actually played a very small part. Places like the Brooklyn Navy Yard were instead tasked with building submarine chasers and painting “dazzle” camouflage schemes to counter German U-boats, and American manufacturing was mobilized to produce more than 50,000 mines for the North Sea Mine Barrage to close off passage to the Atlantic from Germany.
- William S. Sims, The Victory at Sea (Archive.org)
- Intrepid Museum Pearl Harbor Tribute
- U-boats in World War I
- Naval History and Heritage Command interactive map of U-boat attacks on US ships in World War I
- WATCH: Veterans Day in Prospect Park
More than 2,800 Brooklynites were killed in World War I, and Prospect Park quickly became one of the borough’s key points of remembrance and commemoration. On this virtual walking tour for Veterans Day, we will explore some of the memorial sites in the park and they people they memorialize, including the memorial trees along Prospect Park West, Bartel-Pritchard Square, and the striking 1921 memorial by Henry Augustus Lukeman. We will also discuss the ways in which the park was mobilized and transformed as a result of the war.
- Veterans Day Tour Google Map
- The Great War and NYC: Prospect Park
- World War I Memorial Trees
- Mary McDowell Friends School
- The “Living Photographs” of Mole and Thomas