After a two-year hiatus, Fleet Week New York is back! So to mark the day that units arrive in New York for the celebration, we will be looking at some of the participating ships, among them two large Navy ships, four training vessels, two Coast Guard cutters, and a Royal Navy icebreaker, and the opportunities to visit them in Manhattan and Staten Island. We will also look at the history of Fleet Week and other naval reviews in New York, from the return of the victorious fleet after the Spanish-American War, the vast flotilla assembled after World War II, and our present-day Fleet Week tradition dating back to 1988. We will share images and stories of some of the special visits of military vessels to our harbor and to the Brooklyn waterfront.>> Continue reading
Concrete is the world’s most ubiquitous building material, and many important milestones of its development took place in Brooklyn. In this virtual program, we will examine concrete’s history, production, and chemistry, then discuss some of the landmark structures that drove the development of steel-reinforced concrete in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. From Gowanus to DUMBO, Prospect Park to the Brooklyn Navy Yard, we will look at monumental buildings and small details designed by some renowned architects, including Cass Gilbert, Albert Kahn, and Calvert Vaux.
- John C. Goodridge (1874) Beton-Coignet: A Description of the Material and its Uses in France and America
- Histoire de la maison Coignet (1900)
- Turner Construction (1919) A Record of War Activities
- “Pouring Concrete: The Brooklyn Navy Yard Prepares for War”
- Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation
- “Alternative materials could shrink concrete’s giant carbon footprint” (Chemical & Engineering News)
Celebrate Navy Day with a discussion of one of the least-known units of World War II, the Navy Armed Guard. Serving in the U-boat-infested waters of the Atlantic, these sailors served in small detachments aboard merchant ships manning the deck guns. This virtual program will be hosted from the Sunset Park waterfront, where many sailors departed from the docks of the Brooklyn Army Terminal and Bush Terminal, and where the largest Armed Guard Center in the country was located, the Second Battalion Naval Militia Armory that once stood on 1st Avenue and 52nd Street. We will discuss the creation and evolution of the service during World War II, listen to oral histories of Armed Guard sailors, and visit one of the few memorials to the sacrifices of these brave men.
Photo Credit: Official US Navy photograph, taken by Clarence F. Korker
- The Pointer archive
- American Merchant Marine at War
- Clarence “Korky” Korker interview (USA Warrior Stories)
- Justin F. Gleichauf (1990) Unsung Sailors: The Naval Armed Guard in World War II
- “Historical Narrative of U.S. Naval Armed Guard Center Third Naval District” (Hyperwar)
- “Armed Guard Service in World War II” (NHHC)
Concrete may seem like an odd material for shipbuilding, but during World War I, severe shortages of steel led to this innovation. Devised by Norwegian immigrants the Fougner brothers, they built one of the first such ships in the US at their shipyard in Flushing, Queens. The technology reached its apex during World War II, when the US built over 100 ships and barges, and they were used as freighters, tankers, and even floating ice cream factories. Large-scale concrete shipbuilding is a thing of the past, but we will examine the fates of these wartime ships, and discuss many examples of concrete boatbuilding today.
- Concrete Ships
- Nicolay Fougner (1922) Seagoing and Other Concrete Ships
- John Vasta (1952) The Concrete Ship Program of World War II
- “How Poured Ships are Built” (Popular Science)
- “How the Navy’s ban on booze birthed a million-dollar floating ice cream parlor” (Task & Purpose)
As we approach New York City’s primary elections on June 22, housing, as always, is a key issue on the ballot. So we are looking back at the history of social housing in New York – not just the city’s vast NYCHA public housing system, but also other forms of government and philanthropic intervention that have tried to tame the beast of unsafe, unsanitary, and unaffordable housing over the past 100+ years. This program will look at examples of model housing designed by social reformers, landmark cooperatives built by labor unions and community groups, the rise of public housing beginning in the 1930s, and public subsidies for private developments. This wide-ranging examination will take us from the Home and Tower Buildings to the First Houses, from Stuy-Town to the housing lottery.
Completed in 1919, the Brooklyn Army Terminal is a marvel of architecture and engineering. On this virtual tour, we will examine its design and construction during World War I, its 47-year service as a military supply base, and its reinvention as a hub for industry, manufacturing, and technology today. We will spend time in the breathtaking atrium, step into the skybridges that connect the buildings, and look at how the site has been renovated.
- Brooklyn Army Terminal virtual programs
- Adapt Ability Bikes
- BioBAT Art Space • Common Frequencies
- New York New Jersey Rail (car float)
Maps hold the power to organize and explain the world beyond what we can observe with our own eyes, making them extremely powerful political tools. Maps that express a geopolitical vision of how the world works (or should work) have been hugely influential in shaping military strategy, international relations, and public opinion. In this virtual program, our resident political geographer and cartographer Andrew Gustafson will give a crash course on the history of geopolitics as a discipline, using examples of these influential geopolitical imaginings from the past 150 years, from Halford Mackinder’s Heartland to Ronald Reagan’s Chokepoints; Karl Haushofer’s Pan-Regions to George W. Bush’s Axis of Evil.
- Cornell University Library Persuasive Cartography Collection
- Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890)
- WATCH Victory Through Air Power (1943)
- Nicholas Spykman, The Geography of the Peace (1944)
- Saul B. Cohen, Geography and Politics in a World Divided (1963)
- President Reagan’s Address to the Nation on Central America, May 9, 1984
- Gearóid Ó Tuathail, Critical Geopolitics (1996)
- Daniel Immerwahr, How to Hide an Empire (2019)
- Thomas Barnett, “Why the Pentagon Changes Its Maps” (Esquire, 2003)
- Nick Danforth, “The End of History and the Last Map” (Foreign Policy, 2020)
April 6 marks the 104th anniversary of America’s entry into World War I, but the impacts of this global conflict were already being felt in New York City. Starting in 1914, panicked markets, inefficient infrastructure, and marauding U-boats caused price shocks and shortages, and the war led directly to the creation of new modes of food distribution, leading to the creation of New York City’s wholesale and retail public market system that still exists today. In this program, we will examine reports from the time period by the city and state Departments and Markets about how new open-air markets were stood up, pushcart peddlers were mobilized to bring food to neighborhoods, and the public was educated to conserve scarce or strategically valuable ingredients.
- The Great War and NYC: Street Vendors and Public Markets
- Dillon, John J., Seven Decades of Milk: A History of New York’s Dairy Industry (1941)
- “The High Cost of Eating: Three Answers to the Problem of Food Shortage” (Independent, Mar 12, 1917)
- Westerville Public Library: Anti-Saloon League Collection
- “Food Will Win the War” (The Library Company of Philadelphia)
- “American School Lunch Is Becoming More Diverse” (Atlas Obscura)
- Unofficial Collection of World War I Photographs (National Archives)
Food manufacturing has been a cornerstone of Brooklyn’s manufacturing economy for 150 years. Not only was the borough was home to some of the largest chocolate and confectionary makers in the country, but its port brought the tropical ingredients from around the globe. We will discuss some of the large and small chocolate makers that dotted Brooklyn’s landscape, the men and women who worked in them, and the transformations brought to the industry by mechanization, unionization, and war. We will also look at some of the artisanal chocolate makers that are keeping the confectionary traditions alive today.
- The Easter Bunny Goes to War
- The 1919 Brooklyn Chocolate Flood
- Jacques Torres Chocolate
- “Brooklyn’s JoMart Chocolates” (New York Times)
- “Mexican Family Gives Brooklyn Mole Poblano Flavor” (Brooklyn Daily Eagle)
- History of the Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco, and Grain Millers International Union
- Chocolate Manufacturing in World War I (National Archives)
- “Origin of a Dish: Brooklyn Blackout Cake” (Sarah Lohman)
- “City OK with Loss of Cocoa Port” (Brooklyn Paper)
- MRE & Ration Reviews (YouTube)
The celebrate Black History Month and the 220th birthday at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, we are looking at the obstacles and opportunities that Black people encountered at the Brooklyn Navy Yard from the end of the Civil War through the Yard’s closure a century later. The program will examine the long history of African-Americans in the maritime trades, their systematic exclusion from the uniformed ranks of the US Navy in the Jim Crow era, and the new opportunities that emerged during World War II. We will look at profiles of trailblazers, innovators, and activists who worked and served there, and how the Yard became an important to Black economic and cultural life in Brooklyn. This virtual program follows up where we left off with last year’s “An Unfree Fleet,” which looked at the Yard’s connections to the institution of slavery.
- WATCH An Unfree Fleet: Slavery and the Brooklyn Navy Yard
- African-American Maritime Heritage – PortSide NewYork
- The Monitor’s Crew – Monitor Center
- Brooklyn Navy Yard – John Sharp, Genealogy Trails
- The Brooklyn Navy Yard: Civil Servants Building Warships – John Stobo, Columbia University
- Phyllis Mae Dailey, the Navy’s first African-American nurse
- Robert Hammond oral history (Center for Brooklyn History)
- Clark J. Simmons oral history (National Park Service)
- Bolster, Jeffrey W., Black Jacks (Archive.org)
- Harrod, Frederick S., Manning the New Navy (Archive.org)
- Hodges, Graham Russell, Root and Branch (Archive.org)
- Peterson, Carla L., Black Gotham
- Stillwell, Paul, The Golden Thirteen (Archive.org)